The Serf and the Soldier
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Her policies were presented to the Russian and to the European public clothed in the language of the enlightenment. But there was a considerable discrepancy between her aims and her achievements.
It is this discrepancy between the rhetoric in which she expressed her aims and hopes and the actual performance of the institutions she created which has left her open to the charge of hypocrisy. But she was no hypocrite. She believed in her reforms, but she had to use the human tools to hand, and there is no doubt that, while she found many great administrators, most of the officials on whom she had to rely did not live up to her expectations. Was she informed of these inadequacies?
Did she turn a blind eye? We cannot tell at this stage. What remains true however is that Catherine was the first ruler of Russia to conceive of drawing up legislation setting out the corporate rights of the nobles and the townspeople, and the civil rights of the free population of the country. The nobility, the towns people and the free peasants were given a legal framework within which these rights could be pressed.
She was also the first ruler ever to establish special courts to which the state peasants had access and in which they could and did sue merchants and nobles. During her reign the individual-other than the serf or the soldier-was allowed more space, more responsibility, more security, more dignity. For a while an increasingly diversified Russian society escaped from the overwhelming pressure of the militarization imposed on it by Peter I and restored by Paul I. Catherine did not increase the power of the nobles over the serfs, nor did she turn large numbers of Russian state peasants into private serfs.
She did not, as we know, free the serfs, or even attempt to regulate relations between serfs and landowners by law. Her hold on the throne was not strong enough to enable her to put through a policy which would have been opposed by the whole of the Russian political elite, both the nobility and the townspeople. She did not have the power of coercion necessary to enforce a policy which would have to be put through by the very people who benefited from the status quo. Om boka.
Ta kontakt med Kundesenteret. Avbryt Send e-post. From Serf to Russian Soldier Elise Kimerling Wirtschafter Here is the first social history devoted to the common soldier in the Russian army during the first half of the 19th-century--an examination of soldiers as a social class and the army as a social institution.
Les mer. Taxes were based on the assessed value of his lands and holdings. Fees were usually paid in the form of agricultural produce rather than cash. The best ration of wheat from the serf's harvest often went to the landlord. Generally hunting and trapping of wild game by the serfs on the lord's property was prohibited.
On Easter Sunday the peasant family perhaps might owe an extra dozen eggs, and at Christmas a goose was perhaps required too. When a family member died, extra taxes were paid to the lord as a form of feudal relief to enable the heir to keep the right to till what land he had. Any young woman who wished to marry a serf outside of her manor was forced to pay a fee for the right to leave her lord, and in compensation for her lost labour.
Often there were arbitrary tests to judge the worthiness of their tax payments.
A chicken, for example, might be required to be able to jump over a fence of a given height to be considered old enough or well enough to be valued for tax purposes. The restraints of serfdom on personal and economic choice were enforced through various forms of manorial customary law and the manorial administration and court baron. It was also a matter of discussion whether serfs could be required by law in times of war or conflict to fight for their lord's land and property. In the case of their lord's defeat, their own fate might be uncertain, so the serf certainly had an interest in supporting his lord.
Within his constraints, a serf had some freedoms. A serf could grow what crop he saw fit on his lands, although a serf's taxes often had to be paid in wheat. The surplus he would sell at market. The landlord could not dispossess his serfs without legal cause and was supposed to protect them from the depredations of robbers or other lords, and he was expected to support them by charity in times of famine. Many such rights were enforceable by the serf in the manorial court. Forms of serfdom varied greatly through time and regions.
In some places serfdom was merged with or exchanged for various forms of taxation. The amount of labour required varied. In Poland, for example, it was commonly a few days per year per household in the 13th century. One day per week per household in the 14th century. Four days per week per household in the 17th century.
Six days per week per household in the 18th century. Serfs served on occasion as soldiers in the event of conflict and could earn freedom or even ennoblement for valour in combat. Laws varied from country to country: in England a serf who made his way to a chartered town i.
[Podfic] The Queen, the Serf, & the Soldier
Social institutions similar to serfdom were known in ancient times. The status of the helots in the ancient Greek city-state of Sparta resembled that of the medieval serfs. By the 3rd century AD, the Roman Empire faced a labour shortage. Large Roman landowners increasingly relied on Roman freemen, acting as tenant farmers, instead of slaves to provide labour. These tenant farmers, eventually known as coloni , saw their condition steadily erode.
Because the tax system implemented by Diocletian assessed taxes based on both land and the inhabitants of that land, it became administratively inconvenient for peasants to leave the land where they were counted in the census.
However, medieval serfdom really began with the breakup of the Carolingian Empire around the 10th century. Serfdom, indeed, was an institution that reflected a fairly common practice whereby great landlords were assured that others worked to feed them and were held down, legally and economically, while doing so.
This arrangement provided most of the agricultural labour throughout the Middle Ages. Slavery persisted right through the Middle Ages,  but it was rare. In the later Middle Ages serfdom began to disappear west of the Rhine even as it spread through eastern Europe. In many of these countries serfdom was abolished during the Napoleonic invasions of the early 19th century, though in some it persisted until mid- or late- 19th century. Serfdom became the dominant form of relation between Russian peasants and nobility in the 17th century.
From Serf to Russian Soldier
Serfdom only existed in central and southern areas of the Russian Empire. It was never established in the North, in the Urals, and in Siberia. According to the Encyclopedia of Human Rights :. Russia's over 23 million privately held serfs were freed from their lords by an edict of Alexander II in The owners were compensated through taxes on the freed serfs.
State serfs were emancipated in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the saint, see Saint Serf. For the type of magnetometer, see SERF. By country or region.
Opposition and resistance. Abolitionism U. Fief Demesne Crown land. Lord of the manor Overlord Lord Vassal Landed gentry. Fealty Homage Affinity. See also: Villein. Main article: History of serfdom. Main article: Serfdom in Russia. Scotland: neyfs serfs disappeared by the late 14th century. A pest in the land: new world epidemics in a global perspective.
University of New Mexico Press. Continuity and Change. Tibet Journal. Anne-Marie Blondeau and Katia Buffetrille.